Plastic deformation of Czochralski silicon crystals at elevated temperature produces both acceptors and donors simultaneously. The former are ascribed to dislocations and the latter to the oxygen atmospheres around dislocations. The energy levels of the deformation-induced donors are determined by Hall measurements. The oxygen atmospheres are found to be very stable and not to easily transform to precipitates of cristobalite by annealing at 900 °C.
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