We propose an effective way to enhance the out-coupling efficiencies of organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) using graphene as a transparent electrode. In this study, we investigated the detrimental adsorption and internal optics occurring in OLEDs with graphene anodes. The optical out-coupling efficiencies of previous OLEDs with transparent graphene electrodes barely exceeded those of OLEDs with conventional transparent electrodes because of the weak microcavity effect. To overcome this issue, we introduced an internal random scattering layer for light extraction and reduced the optical absorption of the graphene by reducing the number of layers in the multilayered graphene film. The efficiencies of the graphene-OLEDs increased significantly with decreasing the number of graphene layers, strongly indicating absorption reduction. The maximum light extraction efficiency was obtained by using a single-layer graphene electrode together with a scattering layer. As a result, a widened angular luminance distribution with a remarkable external quantum efficiency and a luminous efficacy enhancement of 52.8% and 48.5%, respectively, was achieved. Our approach provides a demonstration of graphene-OLED having a performance comparable to that of conventional OLEDs.
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