The present study was designed to investigate whether porous titanium (Ti) having Young's modulus similar to bone has osteoconductive characteristics in rat critical-sized calvarial bone defect. The effect of coating by octacalcium phosphate (OCP) was also examined. OCP is known as a precursor of initial mineral crystals of biological apatite in bones and teeth. Ti powder was prepared by plasma rotating electrode process in an Ar atmosphere. Then, porous Ti disks, 8 mm in diameter with 1 mm thick, were obtained using the particles ranging from 300 to 500 μm, by sintering at 1573 K without applied pressure. The disks had about 35 vol% in porosity and about 10 GPa in Young's modulus which corresponds to that of human cortical bone. Newly formed bone was observed so as to fill the pore up at 12 weeks, confirming the ability to conduct the ingrowths of the bone tissue. Although in vitro study showed that proliferation of mouse bone marrow stromal ST-2 cells was inhibited on the dishes coated by OCP rather than the control dish, OCP coating on porous Ti seemed to stimulate the bone formation in vivo. Taken together, it seems likely that porous Ti having Young's modulus similar to bone shows osteoconductive characteristics to conduct bone ingrowths. OCP could be a potential coating agent to assist bone regeneration on porous Ti.
ASJC Scopus subject areas