Introduction:: Anaplastic astrocytoma has a dismal prognosis with conventional treatment. Multidisciplinary treatment is needed to control the disease; however, side effects of the treatment reduce a patient's quality of life (QOL). Carmustine-impregnated wafers (Gliadel®, Eisai Co., Ltd., Tokyo, Japan), one of the treatment modalities for anaplastic astrocytoma, has been reported to have drug-induced fever as a side effect. Case Report:: A 36-year-old man underwent excision for a recurrent brain tumor. Histopathological examination established a diagnosis of anaplastic astrocytoma and an intracranial carmustine implant was placed for local chemotherapy. Postoperatively, the patient developed high fever, which could not be controlled using antipyretics. The high fever ameliorated dramatically after the administration of Kampo medicines, specifically orengedokuto and shosaikoto, and the patient could continue chemotherapy. Conclusion:: To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of successful treatment of intractable carmustine implant-induced fever using Kampo medicine. In this case, Kampo medicine led to an improvement of QOL.
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