Mulberry 1-deoxynojirimycin (DNJ, a potent α-glycosidase inhibitor) has therapeutic potency against diabetes mellitus. However, the amount of DNJ in mulberry leaves is low (about 0.1%), and a more effective extraction method is needed. Ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) was applied in this study for mulberry DNJ extraction, and five factors, the percentage of ethanol in the extraction solvent (x1), ratio of the extraction solvent to mulberry sample (x2), ultrasonic power (x3), extraction temperature (x4) and extraction time (x5), were investigated by fractional factorial 2(5-1) design (FFD) to obtain the optimum extraction efficiency (DNJ yield, Y1) and extraction productivity (total yield, Y2). The results showed that x2, x 3 and x5 had significant impact on Y1 and Y2, and were further optimized by response surface methodology (RSM). Under the optimized conditions (x2, x3 and x5 of 7 ml/g, 180 W and 260 s, respectively), DNJ-enriched powder (0.8%) was produced with high extraction efficiency (98%) and productivity (20%), enabling this product to be used for nutraceutical purposes.
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