As for research on sector-coupled energy systems, few studies comprehensively deal with energy carriers and energy demand sectors. Moreover, few studies have analyzed energy conversion functions such as Power-to-Gas, Power-to-Heat, and Vehicle-to-Grid on the energy system performance. This study clarifies the required renewable resources and costs in the sector-coupled energy system and cost-optimal installed capacity and operation. We formulated an optimization model considering sector coupling and conducted a case study applying the model in the Tohoku region. As a result, due to sector coupling, the total primary energy supply (TPES) is expected to decrease, and system costs are expected to increase from 1.8 to 2.4 times the current level. System costs were minimized when maximizing the use of V2G by electric vehicles and district heating systems (DHS). From the hourly analysis, it becomes clear that the peak cut effect by Power-to-Heat and the peak shift effect by Vehicle-to-Grid result in leveling the output of electrolyzer and fuel synthesizer, which improves the capacity factor reducing capacity addition. Since a large amount of renewable energy is required to realize the designed energy system, it is necessary to reduce the energy demand mainly in the industrial sector. Besides, in order to reduce costs, it is required to utilize electric vehicles by V2G and provide policy support for district heating systems in Japan.
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