Cranial bone defects are a major issue in the field of neurosurgery, and improper management of such defects can cause cosmetic issues as well as more serious infections and inflammation. Several strategies exist to manage these defects clinically, but most rely on synthetic materials that are prone to complications; thus, a bone regenerative approach would be superior. We tested a material (octacalcium phosphate collagen composite [OCP/Col]) that is known to enhance bone regeneration in a skull defect model in rats. Using a critical-sized rat skull defect model, OCP/Col was implanted in rats with an intact dura or with a partial defect of the dura. The results were compared with those in a no-treatment group over the course of 12 weeks using computed tomographic and histological analysis. OCP/Col enhanced bone regeneration, regardless of whether there was a defect of the dura. OCP/Col can be used to treat skull defects, even when the dura is injured or removed surgically, via bone regeneration with enhanced resorption of OCP/Col, thus limiting the risk of infection greatly.
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