The orphan nuclear receptor DAX1 (dosage-sensitive sex reversal-AHC critical region on the X chromosome gene 1; NR0B1) has been known for its various roles in human development, specifically sex determination and steroidogenesis. Its expression has been reported in endocrine and sex steroid-dependent neoplasms such as human adrenocortical, pituitary, endometrial, and ovarian tumors. Prostate cancer is also sex steroid-dependent tumor in which androgens play important roles in the pathogenesis and development via androgen receptor (AR). DAX1 is also reported to repress AR activity in human prostate cancer cell line (LNCaP) but its biological roles have remained unclear in the human prostate cancer. The aim of this study is to examine the expression of DAX1 in human prostate cancer using immunohistochemistry in order to evaluate its possible biological and/or clinical significance. In this study, we examined the DAX1 immunoreactivity in human prostate cancer obtained from surgery (n = 40), and correlated the findings with clinicopathological features of the patients. Twenty-one cases were defined as positive cases for DAX1 immunoreactivity (53%). Immunoreactivity for DAX1 was inversely and significantly correlated with Gleason score (P<0.05). However, DAX1 immunoreactivity was not significantly correlated with the status of sex steroid receptors we examined. DAX1 immunoreactivity is considered a new biological modulator of human prostate cancer, but independent to the status of sex steroid receptors in human prostate cancer tissues.
ASJC Scopus subject areas