We characterized two LysM domains of Limosilactobacillus fermentum, belonging to proteins Acglu (GenBank: KPH22907.1) and Pgb (GenBank: KPH22047.1) and bacterium like particles (BLP) derived from the immunomodulatory strain Lacticaseibacillus rhamnosus IBL027 (BLPs027) as an antigen display platform. The fluorescence protein Venus fused to the novel LysM domains could bind to the peptidoglycan shell of lactobacilli and resisted harsh conditions such as high NaCl and urea concentrations. Acglu with five LysM domains was a better anchor than Pgb baring only one domain. Six-week-old BALB/c mice were nasally immunized with the complex Venus-Acglu-BLPs027 at days 0, 14 and 28. The levels of specific serum IgG, IgG1 and IgG2a and the levels of total immunoglobulins (IgT) and IgA in broncho-alveolar lavage (BAL) were evaluated ten days after the last boosting. Venus-Acglu-BLPs027, nasally administered, significantly increased specific BAL IgT and IgA, and serum IgG levels. In addition, spleen cells of mice immunized with Venus-Acglu-BLPs027 secreted TNF-α, IFN-γ and IL-4 when stimulated ex vivo in a dose-dependent manner. We constructed a Gateway compatible destination vector to easily fuse the selected LysM domain to proteins of interest for antigen display to develop mucosal subunit vaccines.
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