The collagen gel droplet-embedded drug sensitivity test (CD-DST) was revealed to be useful for predicting the effect of S-1 adjuvant chemotherapy for pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC). However, collection of an adequate number of PDAC cells is difficult due to the surrounding fibroblasts. Thus, the aim of this study was to discover novel biomarkers to predict chemosensitivity based on the CD-DST results. Proteomics analysis was performed using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC–MS/MS). Candidate proteins were validated in patients with 5-FU CD-DST results via immunohistochemistry (IHC). The relationships between the candidate proteins and the effect of the adjuvant S-1 were investigated via IHC. Among the 2696 proteins extracted by LC–MS/MS, C1TC and SAHH could accurately predict the CD-DST results. Recurrence-free survival (RFS) was significantly improved in the IHC-positive group compared with the IHC-negative group in both factors. The negative group did not show a significant difference from the group that did not receive S-1. The double-positive group was associated with significantly prolonged RFS compared to the no adjuvant chemotherapy group. C1TC and SAHH have been shown to be useful biomarkers for predicting 5-FU sensitivity as a substitute for the CD-DST in adjuvant chemotherapy for PDAC.
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