We examined N2O emissions from the rhizosphere of field-grown soybeans during the late growth stage (99-117 days after sowing). Marked emissions were detected from the nodulated root systems of field-grown soybeans, whereas a non-nodulating soybean mutant showed no emission. Degraded nodules exclusively generated the N2O. A culture-independent analysis of microbial communities showed Bradyrhizobium sp., Acidvorax facilis, Salmonella enterica, Xanthomonas sp., Enterobacter cloacae, Pseudomonas putida, Fusarium sp., nematodes, and other protozoans to be more abundant in the degraded nodules, suggesting that some of these organisms participate in the N 2O emission process in the soybean rhizosphere.
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