Aims: The aims of this study were to evaluate the effectiveness of nisin A to control the growth of spore-forming bacteria, Bacillus and Paenibacillus, in chilled high-fat, milk pudding and to reduce heat treatment to improve aroma and flavour. Methods and Results: Nisin A was added to milk pudding containing 5·0 and 7·5% fat to final concentrations of 40, 80, 120 and 240 IU ml-1. Spores from Bacillus thuringiensis, Bacillus cereus and Paenibacillus jamilae were inoculated into samples at 10 spores ml-1 prior to pasteurization at 130°C for 2 s. Milk pudding without inoculation was pasteurized using less heat condition (100, 110 and 120°C for 2 s) to measure the effect of adjusting the ingredients to prevent naturally occurring bacteria. The viable cells during storage at 15, 20 and 30°C showed nisin A inhibited spiked bacteria to varying degrees depending on species, sensitivities to nisin A concentration and fat content, and inhibited natural populations at 80 IU g-1 nisin A in 5·0% fat and at 120 IU g-1 in 7·5% fat milk pudding. An aroma compound analysis and organoleptic assessment showed processing at 110 and 120°C decreased the temperature-dependent unpleasant odours, for example, reduced dimethyl sulfide and dimethyl disulfide by 1·2-1·5 times and increased rankings in taste tests compared with 130°C treated pudding. Conclusions: Nisin A was found to be effective as a natural preservative to control spoilage bacteria in high-fat milk pudding and extend its shelf life, when using reduced heat treatments to improve the flavour and aroma without compromising food safety. Significance and Impact of the Study: This is the first report showing nisin A is effective in reducing spoilage bacteria in high-fat, chilled dessert, milk pudding. Therefore, nisin A can be used to improve milk puddings to satisfy both industry and consumer demand for food quality and safety.
ASJC Scopus subject areas