The Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare has published the Manual of Antimicrobial Stewardship (1st edition) in June 2017 to improve the prescribing practice of antimicrobials for immunocompetent adult and pediatric (both school-aged and older children) patients. Due to the increasing demand for further promoting outpatient antimicrobial stewardship, we conducted a literature and national guideline review to identify the area of need. The results of our review revealed a high antimicrobial prescription rate in the Japanese pediatric population. Furthermore, although the Japanese clinical guidelines/guidance covered the fields of almost all infectious diseases, no system exists to estimate the incidence and treatment patterns of important infectious diseases such as asymptomatic bacteriuria, skin and soft tissue infections, and dental practices in Japan. Therefore, addressing the issues of both establishing surveillance systems and the implementation of guidelines/guidance can be the next step to promote further outpatient antimicrobial stewardship.
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