Recent advances in the coherent control of single quanta of light, photons, is a topic of prime interest, and is discussed under the banner of quantum photonics. In the last decade, the subwavelength diameter waist of a tapered optical fiber, referred to as an optical nanofiber, has opened promising new avenues in the field of quantum optics, paving the way toward a versatile platform for quantum photonics applications. The key feature of the technique is that the optical field can be tightly confined in the transverse direction while propagating over long distances as a guided mode and enabling strong interaction with the surrounding medium in the evanescent region. This feature has led to surprising possibilities to manipulate single atoms and fiber-guided photons, e.g. the efficient channeling of emission from single atoms and solid-state quantum emitters into the fiber-guided modes, high optical depth with a few atoms around the nanofiber, trapping atoms around a nanofiber, and atomic memories for fiber-guided photons. Furthermore, implementing a moderate longitudinal confinement in nanofiber cavities has enabled the strong coupling regime of cavity quantum electrodynamics to be reached, and the long-range dipole-dipole interaction between quantum emitters mediated by the nanofiber offers a platform for quantum nonlinear optics with an ensemble of atoms. In addition, the presence of a longitudinal component of the guided field has led to unique capabilities for chiral light-matter interactions on nanofibers. In this article, we review the key developments of the nanofiber technology toward a vision for quantum photonics on an all-fiber interface.
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