To determine organ damage due to hypoglycemia, we studied the effects of insulin dose and hypoglycemia duration on serum enzyme activity in rabbits. Thirty rabbits were randomly divided into five groups according to hypoglycemia duration and insulin dose: A2, hypoglycemia for 30 minutes with 2 U/kg insulin; A10, hypoglycemia for 30 minutes with 10 U/kg insulin; B2, hypoglycemia for 60 minutes with 2 U/kg insulin; B10, hypoglycemia for 60 minutes with 10 U/kg insulin; and C, no hypoglycemia with 10 U/kg insulin and 50% glucose. Insulin-induced hypoglycemia was reversed by intravenous injection of glucose. Alterations in serum enzyme activity and creatine kinase (CK) isoenzyme distribution were determined before end after insulin injection. Serum CK activity increased significantly in all hypoglycemic groups compared with preinjection values, and tended to remain high for 24 hours in both groups A10 and B10. Serum activity of alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) increased only in group B10. In addition, the level of band 4 of serum CK isoenzymes, which exists predominantly in skeletal muscle and myocardium, increased significantly in group B10. These results suggest that the increase in both serum enzyme and CK band 4 isoenzyme activities during hypoglycemia is primarily due to damage in muscle rather than liver, and that the hypoglycemia duration and insulin dosage may influence the extent of organ damage.
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