Background: Pulmonary arterial hypertension with systemic dysfunctions, including metabolic disorders and renal dysfunction, has a poor prognosis. However, it remains to be elucidated whether chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH) is also associated with systemic dysfunctions, and if so, whether balloon pulmonary angioplasty (BPA) improves them. Methods and Results: Fifty-five consecutive patients who underwent BPA from March 2012 to December 2014 for systemic dysfunctions, including glycemic control, lipid profiles, renal and vascular function, and nutritional status were examined. The analyses were performed before and after BPA (mean, 3.5 sessions/patient) and changes in hemodynamic parameters were compared. The average follow-up period was 474±245 days. Baseline prevalence of hypertension, diabetes mellitus, dyslipidemia and advanced chronic kidney disease was 58, 7, 33 and 36%, respectively. BPA caused marked hemodynamic improvements in the CTEPH patients. Importantly, BPA also significantly improved dysglycemia (fasting blood sugar, hemoglobin A1c and homeostatic assessment model of insulin resistance), renal (creatinine and estimated glomerular filtration rate) and vascular (cardio-ankle vascular index) functions and nutritional status (albumin, cholesterols, and body mass index). Importantly, there were positive correlations between the degrees of the hemodynamic improvements and those of other improvements. Conclusions: These results indicate that BPA may exert multiple beneficial effects in CTEPH patients, not only in terms of hemodynamics but also in other systemic functions, with positive correlations among them.
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