Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA), together with sphingosine 1-phosphate, is a bioactive lipid mediator that acts on G-protein-coupled receptors to evoke multiple cellular responses, including Ca2+ mobilization, modulation of adenylyl cyclase, and mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase activation. In this study, we isolated a human cDNA encoding a novel G-protein-coupled receptor, designated EDG7, and characterized it as a cellular receptor for LPA. The amino acid sequence of the EDG7 protein is 53.7 and 48.8% identical to those of the human functional LPA receptors EDG2 and EDG4, respectively, previously identified. LPA (oleoyl) but not other lysophospholipids induced an increase in the [Ca2+](i) of EDG7-overexpressing Sf9 cells. Other LPA receptors, EDG4 but not EDG2, transduced the Ca2+ response by LPA when expressed in Sf9 cells. LPAs with an unsaturated fatty acid but not with a saturated fatty acid induced an increase in the [Ca2+](i) of EDG7- expressing Sf9 cells, whereas LPAs with both saturated and unsaturated fatty acids elicited a Ca2+ response in Sf9 cells expressing EDG4. In EDG7- or EDG4-expressing Sf9 cells, LPA stimulated forskolin-induced increase in intracellular cAMP levels, which was not observed in EDG2-expressing cells. In PC12 cells, EDG4 but not EDG2 or EDG7 mediated the activation of MAP kinase by LPA. Neither the EDG7- nor EDG4-transduced Ca2+ response or cAMP accumulation was inhibited by pertussis toxin. In conclusion, the present study demonstrates that EDG7, a new member of the EDG family of G-protein- coupled receptors, is a specific LPA receptor that shows distinct properties from known cloned LPA receptors in ligand specificities, Ca2+ response, modulation of adenylyl cyclase, and MAP kinase activation.
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