The ability of lactobacilli isolated from feedlot cattle environment to differentially modulate the innate immune response triggered by Toll-like receptors (TLRs) activation in bovine intestinal epithelial (BIE) cells was evaluated. BIE cells were stimulated with Lactobacillus mucosae CRL2069, Lactobacillus acidophilus CRL2074, Lactobacillus fermentum CRL2085 or Lactobacillus rhamnosus CRL2084 and challenged with heat-stable pathogen associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) from enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) to induce the activation of TLR4 or with polyinosinic:polycytidylic acid (poly(I:C)) to activate TLR3. Type I interferons, cytokines, chemokines and negative regulators of TLR signalling were studied by RT-PCR. L. mucosae CRL2069 significantly reduced the expression of interleukin (IL)-8 and monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP)-1 in BIE cells in the context of TLR3 activation. L. mucosae CRL2069 also reduced the expression of tumour necrosis factor-α, IL-β, MCP-1, and IL-8 in heat-stable ETEC PAMPs-challenged BIE cells. In addition, reduced expressions of IL-6, MCP-1, and IL-8 were found in BIE cells stimulated with L. rhamnosus CRL2084, although its effect was significantly lower than that observed for the CRL2069 strain. The reduced levels of pro-inflammatory factors in BIE cells induced by the CRL2069 and CRL2085 strains was related to their ability of increasing the expression of TLR negative regulators. L. mucosae CRL2069 significantly improved the expression of A20-binding inhibitor of NFκ-B activation 3 (ABIN-3), interleukin-1 receptor-associated kinase M (IRAK-M) and mitogen-activated protein kinase 1 (MKP-1) while L. rhamnosus CRL2084 augmented ABIN-3 expression in BIE cells. The results of this work suggest that among the studied strains, L. mucosae CRL2069 was able to regulate TLR3-mediated innate immune response and showed a remarkable capacity to modulate TLR4-mediated inflammation in BIE cells. The CRL2069 strain induce the up-regulation of three TLR negative regulators that would influence nuclear factor kB and mitogen-activated protein kinases signalling pathways while reducing the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines. Therefore, L. mucosae CRL2069 is an interesting immunobiotic candidate for the protection of the bovine host against TLR-mediated intestinal inflammatory damage.
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