This study aimed to profile the microflora in infected root canals before and after root canal treatment using culture-independent methods. Six infected root canals in single-rooted teeth with periapical lesions from five subjects were included. Quantification of total bacteria was performed by real-time PCR with primers targeting 16S rRNA genes. PCR products with universal 16S rRNA gene primers were cloned and partially sequenced, and bacterial identification at the species level was performed by comparative analysis with the GenBank database. The concentration of extracted DNA before treatment was higher than that after root canal treatment, although the difference was not statistically significant. Sequence analysis revealed that oral bacteria such as Fusobacterium, Streptococcus, Olsenella, and Pseudoramibacter detected in cases before root canal treatment disappeared after treatment. These results suggest that the root canal microflora are distinct before and after root canal treatment, and that treatment changes the microflora in both quantity and quality.
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