The nature of an albumin-coated substrate that blocks protein adsorption and cell adhesion was rapidly switched to cell-adhesive by exposure to an oxidizing agent such as HBrO. This finding has enabled cellular pattern drawing even on a single-cell level by closely scanning a microelectrode above the substrate and electrochemically producing the agent at the tip of the electrode. The present microelectrochemical cell patterning is applicable even for a previously cell-patterned substrate and for a grooved substrate. These unique technical features will have impacts on a variety of cell-based studies that require the analysis of heterotypic cell-cell interactions and cellular arrangement on an uneven surface such as semiconductor devices.
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