A microchip-based liquid-liquid extraction for the gas chromatography analysis of urine for amphetamine-type stimulants has been developed. Partially modified microchannels with the capillarity restricted modification (CARM) method were employed for stabilizing the interface consisting of 1-chlorobutane and alkalized urine. Reliability of the microchip-based extraction was evaluated with respect to linearity, trueness and precision. As a practical demonstration, methoxyphenamine hydrochloride (50 mg) was administered to three healthy volunteers, and the concentration of methoxyphenamine in their urine was determined by both methods for comparison. This study showed the potential of pressure-driven microfluidics to contribute to the rapid automation analysis in forensic toxicology.
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