Anaerobic digestion (AD), a series of biochemical processes, is accomplished by the group of anaerobes, functioning collectively to transform organic mass into biogas and nutrient-rich digestate. Each microbial group has its unique qualities (growth rate, susceptibility and, diversity and density) as a response to variable operating conditions. The dynamic performance of microbial community development was critically reviewed concerning long-term effects and correlated the community structure with digester functionality and operational states, i.e., wet–dry, mesophilic–thermophilic, single-stage:two-stage, stable–unstable, conductive materials and nutrients supplementation, and full-scale operation. The identification, composition, and functionalities of the microorganisms involved provided the information for a better understanding and further development of controls for the anaerobic digestion process.
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