Introduction: The purpose of this study is to examine self-awareness of patients with Alzheimer disease (AD) regarding forgetfulness and physical status, with the goal of further psychological understanding of these patients. Methods: The 255 subjects included 33 healthy volunteers and 48 patients with mild cognitive impairment who were elderly community residents selected from the 2017 Wakuya Project and 174 consecutive outpatients with AD at the Tajiri Clinic. Test data were selected from a pooled database. Results from the Mini-Mental State Examination, Clinical Dementia Rating (CDR), Short Falls Efficacy Scale International (FES), and Everyday Memory Checklist (EMC) were used in the study. FES and EMC data were also obtained from family members for comparison. Results: EMC scores in the AD groups (mild to moderate and moderate to severe) were significantly higher (more complaining memory impairment) than those in the CDR 0 (healthy) group and significantly lower (less self-awareness for memory impairment) than the corresponding EMC scores of families of the subjects. In contrast, FES scores of the AD groups did not differ significantly from those of the CDR 0 group, and these scores were higher (more fear of falling) than those of family members. Additionally, family-FES scores of the AD groups were higher than those of the CDR 0 and 0.5 groups. Conclusion: The results showed an evidence of the heterogeneity of awareness, an emotional response (concern or fear, FES), and a cognitive appraisal of function (EMC). These may be explained whereby awareness of/fear of falling increases with AD due to a preserved emotional awareness, whereas awareness of cognitive impairment is impaired due to memory deficits.
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