Objectives In recent years Mongolia has made great advances towards Millennium Development Goals to reduce maternal and child mortality, however few studies have investigated maternal and child health status several years after childbirth. Our study aims to describe priority health issues in maternal and child health in Mongolia 3 years after childbirth, and key areas requiring further health policy development. Methods We conducted a population-based cross-sectional study in Bulgan province, Mongolia. Participants were women who gave birth in 2010 and lived in Bulgan in 2013, and their children who were almost 3 years of age. Data was collected using structured interviews, self-administered questionnaires, transcribed records from the Maternal and Child Health Handbook, anthropometric measurements, and a developmental assessment tool. Results Data was obtained from 1,019 women and 1,013 children (recovery rate: 94.1 %). Among women, 171 (17.2 %) were obese and had an average body mass index (BMI) of 25.7, 40 (4.4 %) experienced intimate partner violence (IPV) and 356 (36.2 %) reported urinary incontinence in the past month. Among children, 110 (10.8 %) were assessed as at risk of developmental delay, 131 (13.1 %) were overweight or obese, burns accounted for the highest number of serious accidents at 173 (17.0 %) while lower respiratory tract infections (LRTIs) were the most frequent cause of pediatric hospitalization. Conclusions for Practice Further development in health policy is required in Mongolia to target the significant health challenges of obesity, IPV, and urinary incontinence in women, and obesity, development delay, burns, and LRTIs in children.
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