Introduction and importance: Malignant rhabdoid tumours (MRTs) were first described as an infrequent variant of Wilms’ tumour and have been reported in several organs. The small intestine is a rare site for MRTs. Case presentation: A 70-year-old man presented with appetite loss and melena. Haemorrhagic small intestinal tumours, swollen mesenteric and paraaortic lymph nodes, a tumour in the left kidney, and multiple tumours in the lung were found. He underwent partial resection of two haemorrhagic small intestinal tumours classified as MRTs based on the results of a pathological examination. However, melena appeared again on postoperative day 6. We performed another operation and resected approximately 180 cm of the small intestine that contained multiple tumours. All lesions were classified as MRTs. Unfortunately, melena appeared again 4 days after the second operation. He did not want invasive therapy and died from massive melena 2 months after the initial surgery. Clinical discussion: MRTs of the small intestine are uncommon and have an extremely poor prognosis. Although curative resection is an important treatment, cases of metastasis at diagnosis and postoperative early recurrence have been observed, as was the case for the patient described herein. In these cases, effective systemic therapy is necessary. Recently, tumour suppressor genes were shown to be involved in the occurrence of MRT, and new therapies for MRT have been studied. Conclusion: We herein conclude effective systemic therapy is necessary for MRTs with multiple organ involvement. The development of new drugs for this disease is ongoing.
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