There is increasing evidence to suggest the anti-tumor effects of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). In this study it was shown that the most popular NSAID in Japan, loxoprofen sodium (LOX), inhibited in vivo growth of implanted Lewis lung carcinoma (LLC), whereas LOX did not affect the proliferation and viability of LLC cells in vitro. Intratumoral vessel density in LOX-treated mice was significantly lower than that of mice without treatment. Intratumoral expressions of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) mRNA were attenuated by the LOX treatment. LOX suppressed both intratumoral and systemic VEGF protein in LLC-implanted mice. LOX also inhibited tubular formation of primary cultured human umbilical vein endothelial cells, presumably due to the inhibition of VEGF. In patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer, LOX medication (120 mg/day) for a week significantly decreased the plasma VEGF level. These results suggest that LOX may have potent anti-cancer effects in patients with advanced NSCLC.
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