Carbon monoxide (CO) and nitric oxide (NO) exhibit physiological properties that include the activation of guanylate cyclase. NO inhibits replication of rhinovirus (RV), a major cause of the common cold and exacerbation of bronchial asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. However, the anti-rhinoviral effects of CO remain unclear. This study investigated whether the exogenous application of low-dose CO could inhibit RV replication in human alveolar and airway epithelial cells. A549 human lung carcinoma cells with alveolar epithelial features and primary cultures of human tracheal epithelial (HTE) cells were pretreated with CO (100 ppm) and infected with a major group RV, type 14 RV (RV14). CO exposure reduced RV14 titers in the supernatants and RV RNA levels in A549 and HTE cells. The treatment with a guanylate cyclase inhibitor, 1H-[1,2,4]oxadiazolo[4,3-a]quinoxalin-1-one, reversed the inhibitory effects of CO exposure on RV14 replication in A549 cells. Pretreatment of A549 cells with 8-Br-cGMP, a cellpermeable cGMP analog, caused the decrease in RV14 replication, while CO exposure increased cGMP production. CO exposure also increased the expression levels of interferon (IFN)-γ mRNA and protein. In contrast, pretreatment with CO did not increase DNA fragmentation and did not reduce the expression of intercellular adhesion molecule-1, the RV14 receptor, or the number of acidic endosomes, through which RV RNA enters the cytoplasm. These findings suggest that low-dose CO may decrease RV14 replication in alveolar and airway epithelial cells. IFN-? production, which is induced by CO exposure via guanylate cyclase activation-mediated cGMP production, may be involved in RV14 replication inhibition.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology(all)