Cilia and flagella are hair-like organelles that project from the cell surface and play important roles in motility and sensory perception. Motility defects in cilia and flagella lead to primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD), a rare human disease. Recently zinc finger MYND-type containing 10 (ZMYND10) was identified in humans as a PCD-associated gene. In this study, we use medaka fish as a model to characterize the precise functions of zmynd10. In medaka, zmynd10 is exclusively expressed in cells with motile cilia. Embryos with zmynd10 Morpholino knockdown exhibited a left-right (LR) defect associated with loss of motility in Kupffer's vesicle (KV) cilia. This immotility was caused by loss of the outer dynein arms, which is a characteristic ultrastructural phenotype in PCD. In addition, KV cilia in zmynd10 knockdown embryos had a swollen and wavy morphology. Together, these results suggest that zmynd10 is a multi-functional protein that has independent roles in axonemal localization of dynein arms and in formation and/or maintenance of cilia. The C-terminal region of zmynd10 has a MYND-type zinc finger domain (zf-MYND) that is important for its function. Our rescue experiment showed that the zmynd10–ΔC truncated protein, which lacks zf-MYND, was still partially functional, suggesting that zmynd10 has another functional domain besides zf-MYND. To analyze the later stages of development, we generated a zmynd10 knockout mutant using transcription activator-like effector nuclease (TALEN) technology. Adult mutants exhibited sperm dysmotility, scoliosis and progressive polycystic kidney.
ASJC Scopus subject areas