Cognitive impairment is a part of neurological findings. Localization of each cognitive function, however, is not as straightforward as motor or sensory functions. Individual differences in premorbid abilities and functional network, in addition to the hierarchical organization of cognitive functions, make functional localization highly complicated. Brainbehavior relationships have been studied in patients with focal lesions, such as cerebrovascular diseases or brain tumor. Nowadays, distribution of brain atrophy in relation to cognitive performance is also investigated in neurodegenerative disorders using various neuroimaging techniques. Neurologists can take the pathological processes in each disease into account when they explore the distribution of impaired neural networks. Integrating sophisticated lesion analysis with deficit analysis based on knowledge of normal cognitive function would clarify brain-behavior relationships.
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