Bacterial lipopolysaccharides possess bone-resorbing activity. Here, lipopolysaccharides from three putative periodontopathic bacteria were examined for effects on osteoclast-like cell formation of bone marrow cells from lipopolysaccharide-responsive C3H-HeN and non-responsive C3H/HeJ mice. The bone marrow cells were cultured with or without various doses of lipopolysaccharide in the presence of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 and dexamethasone. These lipopolysaccharide preparations significantly increased the number of osteoclast-like cells formed in the culture of C3H/HeN marrow cells; the same as lipopolysaccharides from Escherichia coli and a synthetic lipid A with E. coli-type structure (LA-15-PP), at doses from 0.1 to 1 μg/ml. This stimulating effect of each lipopolysaccharides was uniformly abrogated by the addition of polymyxin B at 5 μg/ml. All the lipopolysaccharide and the synthetic lipid A had no effect on osteoclast formation of the C3H/HeJ marrow cells, whereas lipopolysaccharide from Porphyromonas gingivalis and Prevotella intermedia showed significant mitogenic activity on C3H/HeJ spleen cells. It seems likely that the activity of lipopolysaccharides to augment osteoclast-like cell formation in the bone marrow cell cultures is derived from a common structure of the lipid A portion.
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