Neuroendocrine neoplasms (NENs) are rare neoplasms that occur in various organs and present with diverse clinical manifestations. Pathological classification is important in the diagnosis of NENs. Treatment strategies must be selected according to the status of differentiation and malignancy by accurately determining whether the neoplasm is functioning or nonfunctioning, degree of disease progression, and presence of metastasis. The newly revised Clinical Practice Guidelines for Gastroenteropancreatic Neuroendocrine Neoplasms (GEP-NENs) comprises 5 chapters—diagnosis, pathology, surgical treatment, medical and multidisciplinary treatment, and multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1)/von Hippel–Lindau (VHL) disease—and includes 51 clinical questions and 19 columns. These guidelines aim to provide direction and practical clinical content for the management of GEP-NEN preferentially based on clinically useful reports. These revised guidelines also refer to the new concept of “neuroendocrine tumor” (NET) grade 3, which is based on the 2017 and 2019 WHO criteria; this includes health insurance coverage of somatostatin receptor scintigraphy for NEN, everolimus for lung and gastrointestinal NET, and lanreotide for GEP-NET. The guidelines also newly refer to the diagnosis, treatment, and surveillance of NEN associated with VHL disease and MEN1. The accuracy of these guidelines has been improved by examining and adopting new evidence obtained after the first edition was published.
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