Background It has been reported that many branch duct intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms (BD-IPMN) with a mural nodule (MN) reveal adenocarcinomas. On the other hand, invasive cancer derived from BD-IPMN without MN on endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) also exists. The aim of this study was to elucidate the clinicopathological features of invasive cancer derived from BD-IPMN without MN on EUS. Methods Twenty-one patients pathologically diagnosed with invasive cancer derived from BD-IPMN were included in this study. Results Based on the height of MNs on EUS, the subjects could be clearly classified as 12 patients whose background BD-IPMNs had high MNs (nodule-forming type IPMN) and nine whose background BD-IPMNs showed no MNs (flat type IPMN). The background BD-IPMN of the 12 patients with nodule-forming type IPMN were non-gastric type. On the other hand, the background BD-IPMN of the nine patients with flat type IPMN was gastric type. The recurrence rate was higher (33% vs. 67%) and the 5-year survival was worse (76% vs. 33%) in flat type IPMN. Conclusions There may be a pathway for the development of invasive cancer without the formation of an MN in BD-IPMN, and attention should be paid even to the patients with BD-IPMN which does not present an MN.
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