To investigate the underlying mechanism for induction of CD86 molecules, we analysed the ability of the histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor, sodium butyrate (NaB), to induce CD86 at the transcriptional level in HL60 cells. Our studies showed that the expression of CD86 on the cell surface was increased by 24 hr of NaB treatment, and the enhancement of CD86 mRNA expression was observed by real-time polymerase chain reaction. When we measured NF-κB binding activity, significant activity was induced upon NaB stimulation, which was suppressed by the addition of pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate. Butyrate also induced phosphorylated cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB), which bound to cAMP-responsive elements. Dibutyryl (db) -cAMP induced active CREB and increased the levels of CD86 by 24 hr. These observations indicated that NF-κB and/or CREB are crucial for butyrate-dependent activation of CD86 gene expression. We examined the inhibitory effects of various caspase inhibitors on the expression of CD86 in cells treated with NaB, because NaB also induced apoptosis with slow kinetics. Intriguingly, our results demonstrated that inhibitors of the interleukin- 1β converting enzyme subfamily (caspase- 1, -4, -5 and -13) blocked the butyrate-induced increase in level of CD86. These inhibitors interfered with CD86 gene transcription in the presence of activated NF-κB, whereas phosphorylated CREB was down-regulated in the reactions where these inhibitors were added to inhibit CD86 gene expression. These results suggested that butyrate not only acetylates histones on the CD86 promoter through the suppression of HDAC activity, but that butyrate also regulates CREB-mediated transcription, possibly through the caspase activities triggered by NaB.
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