Red clover (Trifolium pratense L.) is a forage legume and an allogamous diploid plant (2n = 14; 440 Mb). Here, we examine the 7 prometaphase chromosomes of red clover using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) with ribosomal RNA sequences, pericentromeric and telomeric repeats, as well as bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) clones. Position of hybridization signals and chromosome condensation patterns were quantified by the help of the chromosome image analysis system ver. 4.0 (CHIAS IV). Fourteen BAC clones belonging to linkage groups (LG) 1-7 hybridized to individual chromosomes 4, 2, 6, 5, 1, 7, and 3, respectively. Quantitative analysis of FISH mapping and chromosome analysis using CHIAS IV allowed us to construct a quantitative idiogram that constitutes the comprehensive chromosome map of red clover. Chromosomal positions of the 26S rDNA locus were detected at a heterozygous locus on chromosome 6 in the variety HR, and polymorphisms of rDNA loci were observed in other varieties, although chromosomal positions of some BAC clones did not vary among HR and other varieties. These results demonstrate chromosomal collinearity among allogamous red clover varieties. This integration of genetic linkage and quantitative chromosome maps should provide valuable insight into allogamous legume genetics.
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