Pyridoxamine (PM) is a promising drug candidate for treating various chronic conditions/diseases in which oxidative stress and carbonyl compounds are important factors affecting pathogenicity. These abilities of PM are mainly attributed to its inhibition of advanced glycation and lipoxidation end product formation, by scavenging reactive carbonyl species. PM might therefore prevent protein damage from lipid hydroperoxide-derived aldehydes such as 4-oxo-2(E)-nonenal (ONE) and 4-hydroxy-2(E)-nonenal (HNE) by trapping them. It was previously reported that PM reacts with ONE to produce pyrrolo-1,3-oxazine (PO8) through the formation of pyrido-1,3-oxazine (PO1/PO2). In this study, we found that ONE and HNE yield an identical product containing a pyrrole ring (PO7, PH2) upon reaction with PM. The structure of PO7/PH2 was shown by LC-MS and NMR analyses to be 1-(2-hydroxy-6-hydro-xymethyl-3-methylpyridin-4-ylmethyl)-2-pentylpyrrole. PO1, PO7/PH2, and PO8 were the main stable PM-ONE/HNE adducts. In the incubation of human serum albumin (HSA) with ONE or HNE, Lys residues provided the most favorable modification sites for both aldehydes, and the number of HNE-modified sites was higher than that of ONE-modified sites. When HSA was allowed to react with a linoleic acid hydroperoxide in the presence of ascorbic acid, ONE modified more residues (10 Lys, 3 His, 2 Arg) than did HNE (8 His, 2 Lys), indicating the relative reactivity of aldehydes towards amino acid residues. Upon treatment with increasing concentrations of PM, the concentrations of ONE-modified HSA peptides, but not of HNE-modified peptides, were reduced significantly and dose-dependently. Concomitantly, the formation of PM-ONE adducts increased in a dose-dependent manner. The inhibition effect of PM was also confirmed in the cell system subjected to oxidative stress. Our results demonstrate that PM can inhibit lipid hydroperoxide-derived damage to proteins by trapping ONE preferentially, and the resulting PM-ONE adducts can be used as a dosimeter for ONE production to determine the levels of lipid peroxidation.
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