Purpose of Review: The Maillard reaction (MR) is a non-enzymatic reaction between reducing sugars and compounds with free amino groups such as proteins and takes place during thermal processing and storage of foods. This review aims to discuss potential effects of dietary MR products on the pathological mechanisms of allergic diseases. Recent Findings: Since the MR leads to modification of proteins with various types of glycation structures, the impact of the MR on the immunogenicity and potential allergenicity of food proteins in many allergenic foods has been assessed. In addition, recent studies have suggested that the MR products, in particular “advanced glycation end products (AGEs),” contained in the diet may be involved in the development of chronic inflammation by acting as inflammatory components and affecting the gut microbiome. Summary: This review found that the biological, immunological, and allergic properties of dietary MR products are diverse due to the complexity of the MR.
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