The changes in the exchangeable Mn (Ex-Mn), exchangeable Co (Ex-Co), and exchangeable Cu (Ex-Cu) contents by air-drying of soils were reported in our previous paper. The drying effect, however, was not analyzed in the field. The objective of this study was to investigate the influence of soil-drying under field conditions on Ex-Mn, Ex-Co, and Ex-Cu levels. Two paddy soils (Tsukuba and Yawara) were collected at four different soil depths (0∓1, 1∓5, 5∓10, and 10∓20 cm) under three different soil moisture conditions i.e., after harvest, after successive sunny days and after rainy days. After sunny days, Ex-Mn and Ex-Co contents in the surface soil layer markedly increased and drastically decreased after rainfall, while they remained almost unchanged in the lower soil layers. Ex-Cu contents slightly increased in the surface soil layer after sunny days. A similar tendency was observed in soil column experiments. The contents of Ex-Mn, Ex-Co, and Ex-Cu increased 12, 12, and 2 times in the upper layer of soil columns that had been sampled from the Yawara field and stored in a dark room for 8 d. The increase of the Ex-Mn and Ex-Co contents in the upper layer could not be explained by the capillary rise of soil water from the lower layers of the columns. In a soil-drying experiment under laboratory conditions, Ex-Mn and Ex-Co contents began to increase when the water content of the Yawara soil was lower than 0.09∓0.13 kg kg−1. The water content of the surface soil of the Yawara field after sunny days was 0.08 kg kg−1. Ex-Cu content did not change apprecially with the water content. It is concluded that the increase of the Ex-Mn and Ex-Co levels in field surface soils after sunny days can be ascribed to soil-drying. Some of the excess Ex-Mn and Ex-Co is expected to leach down into lower layers due to rain, which may contribute to plant uptake of Mn and Co.
ASJC Scopus subject areas