Introduction: Persistent sciatic artery is a rare vascular anomaly. The occurrence of infected persistent sciatic artery aneurysm (PSAA) is extremely rare. Report: An 84 year old woman who was under observation for a massive thrombosed right PSAA since the age of 74 presented with severe pain in her right lower limb. The patient was diagnosed with the infected PSAA by computed tomography and laboratory test. The condition was treated with antibiotics as well as drainage and removal of the infected thrombus with a small incision. Subsequently, the patient's symptoms improved, and she was discharged ambulatory. Sixteen months after the surgery, her condition remained good, with no evidence of recurrent infection. Conclusion: Extensive debridement requires a large muscle incision and carries with it a risk of sciatic nerve injury. However, a thrombosed aneurysm has little risk of haemorrhage. Therefore, drainage and removal of the thrombus via a small incision, which is less invasive, was considered effective for this infected thrombosed PSAA.
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