Androgenesis, development from paternal but not maternal chromosomes, can be induced in some organisms including fish, but has not been induced previously in mollusk. In this study we investigated the induction of haploid androgenesis in the Pacific oyster by ultraviolet irradiation and observed nuclear behavior in the androgenetic eggs. Irradiation for 90 seconds at a UV intensity of 72 erg/mm2 per second (6480 erg/ mm2) was the optimal dose to achieve haploid androgenesis. The fertilization and development rates of D-shaped larvae decreased with increasing exposure time, and the development of the genetically inactivated eggs terminated before reaching the D-shaped stage. Cytologic observations showed that UV irradiation did not affect germinal vesicle breakdown or chromosomal condensation but caused various nuclear behavioral patterns during meiosis and first mitosis: 21.7% of eggs extruded all maternal chromosomes as 2 or 3 polar bodies, and 59.1% of eggs formed one female pronucleus. The maternally derived nucleus did not participate, or partially participated, in the first karyokinesis. The cytologic evidence demonstrates that the male genome is directing development in haploids produced by UV irradiation.
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