Liphagal, isolated from the marine sponge Aka coralliphaga, exhibits phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase alpha (PI3Kα) inhibitory activity and cytotoxic effects in human cancer cells. Siphonodictyal B, the biogenetic precursor of liphagal, also has PI3K inhibitory activity. However, its cytotoxic or antitumor activities have not been evaluated. In this study, we demonstrated that siphonodictyal B inhibits several kinases such as CDK4/6, CDK7, and PIM2 in addition to PI3K in vitro and that siphonodictyal B exhibits more potent cytotoxic effects than liphagal against human colon cancer cell lines. Furthermore, treatment with siphonodictyal B resulted in increased PARP cleavage, a larger sub-G1 fraction, and a larger annexin V-positive cell population, all of which are indicative of apoptosis induction. As a mechanism of apoptosis induction, we found that siphonodictyal B activates the p38 MAPK pathway, leading the upregulation of proapoptotic factors. Moreover, siphonodictyal B increased ROS levels, thus promoting p38 MAPK pathway activation. NAC, an ROS scavenger, almost completely reversed both the cytotoxic and p38 MAPK pathway-activating effects of siphonodictyal B. These results indicate that the p38 MAPK pathway might be involved downstream of ROS signaling as part of the mechanism of siphonodictyal B-induced apoptosis. Finally, siphonodictyal B displayed antitumor effects in a human colon cancer xenograft mouse model and increased p38 phosphorylation in tumor tissue. These results suggest that siphonodictyal B could serve as the basis of a novel anticancer drug.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging
- Cancer Research