Peening method using cavitation impact at bubble collapse has been proposed. At the peening, cavitation bubble was normally generated by injecting a high-speed water jet into a water-filled chamber, i.e., a cavitating jet in water. In the present paper, the peening using a cavitating jet in air, which can generate the cavitation bubble without a water-filled chamber was investigated. It was revealed that the improvement of fatigue strength peened by the cavitating jet in air was better than that of the cavitating jet in water.
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