Background: Recent trends in the clinical characteristics, management and prognosis of dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) remain to be examined in Japan. Methods and Results: We compared 306 and 710 DCM patients in the Chronic Heart Failure Analysis and Registry in the Tohoku District (CHART)-1 (2000–2005, n=1,278) and the CHART-2 (2006–present, n=10,219) Studies, respectively. Between the 2 groups of DCM patients, there were no significant differences in baseline characteristics. The prevalence of hypertension, dyslipidemia and diabetes mellitus were all significantly increased from the CHART-1 to the CHART-2 Study. The use of β-blockers and aldosterone antagonists was significantly increased, while that of loop diuretics and digitalis was significantly decreased in the CHART-2 Study. The 3-year mortality rate was significantly improved from 14% in the CHART-1 to 9% in the CHART-2 Study (adjusted HR, 0.60; 95% CI: 0.49–0.81; P=0.001). In particular, 3-year incidence of cardiovascular death was significantly decreased (adjusted HR, 0.26; 95% CI: 0.14–0.50, P<0.001), while that of HF admission was not (adjusted HR, 0.90; 95% CI: 0.59–1.37, P=0.632). The prognostic improvement was noted in patients with BNP <220 pg/ml, LVEF>40%, β-blocker use and aldosterone antagonist use. Conclusions: Long-term prognosis of DCM patients has been improved, along with the implementation of evidencebased medication in Japan.
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