Background: High-risk stigmata (HRS) and ‘worrisome features’ (WFs) are defined as predictive factors for malignancies of intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms (IPMNs). We performed this study to determine the importance and odds ratio (OR) of each HRS and WFs as predictors for high-grade dysplasia (HGD). Methods: We analyzed 295 patients who underwent pancreatectomy for branch duct and mixed-type IPMN, and evaluated the association between HRS and WFs (as defined by the ‘2017 Fukuoka Consensus Guidelines’) and HGD. Results: The proportions of patients with low-grade dysplasia (LGD), HGD, and invasive carcinoma were 47%, 28%, and 25%, respectively. Multivariate analysis comparing patients with LGD and HGD using all HRS and WFs revealed that an enhancing mural nodule ≥5 mm (OR: 4.1), pancreatitis (OR: 2.2), and thickened/enhancing cyst walls (OR: 2.2) were independent predictive factors for HGD. Based on the OR (the former factor is two points and the latter two factors are each one point), the incidence of HGD in patients with none (n = 43), one (n = 82), two (n = 25), three (n = 52), and four (n = 19) of these predictive factors were 9%, 26%, 52%, 62%, and 63%, respectively. Assuming a score of one or higher as a surgical indication, the sensitivity, specificity, positive predict value, and negative predict value of HGD were 95, 38, 44, and 91%. Conclusions: Our derived scoring system using more important factors in HRS and WFs may be useful for predicting HGD and determining surgical indications of IPMN.
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