Purpose: This study aimed to develop a Japanese version of the Low Luminance Questionnaire (LLQ-J) and to evaluate its reliability and validity. Study design: Cross-sectional study. Methods: LLQ-J was developed by standardized methods. A total of 101 patients comprising 55 with age-related macular degeneration, 25 with glaucoma, 15 with regressed proliferative diabetic retinopathy, and 6 with retinitis pigmentosa were included in this study. The patients completed the LLQ-J and Japanese version of the visual function Questionnaire-25 (VFQ-25). Using the LLQ-J data, floor and ceiling effects were computed. To examine internal consistency, some patients completed the LLQ-J a second time 2–4 weeks later and the data were analyzed for Cronbach’s alpha and intra-class correlation coefficients (ICCs). Best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) and low luminance visual acuity (LLVA) were measured, and low-luminance deficit (LLD) was calculated. Criterion validity was also tested. Results: No ceiling or floor effects were present in the LLQ-J data. Cronbach’s alfa was 0.88, and ICCs were higher than 0.70 for all subscales. Moderate to high correlation was observed between LLQ-J and VFQ-25 (p < 0.01), confirming concurrent validity. “General dim lighting” and “Peripheral vision” were significantly associated with LLVA in the better eye (p < 0.05). “Mobility”, “General dim lighting” and “Peripheral vision” were significantly associated with LLD (p < 0.05). “Emotional distress” was significantly associated with BCVA in the worse eye (p < 0.05). No subscales were associated with BCVA of the better eye. Conclusions: The LLQ-J is a valid and reliable questionnaire for assessing QOL under low luminance conditions.
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