Purposes: The aim of this study was to clarify the impact of a board certification system and the implementation of clinical practice guidelines for pancreatic cancer (PC) on the mortality of pancreaticoduodenectomy in Japan. Methods: By a web questionnaire survey via the National Clinical Database (NCD) for departments participating in the NCD, quality indicators (QIs) related to the treatment for PC, namely the board certification systems of various societies and the adherence to clinical practice guidelines for PC, were investigated between October 2014 and January 2015. A multivariable logistic regression analysis was performed to evaluate the relationship between the QIs and mortality of pancreaticoduodenectomy. Results: Of 1415 departments that registered at least 1 pancreaticoduodenectomy between 2013 and 2014 in NCD, 631 departments (44.6%), which performed pancreaticoduodenectomy for a total of 11,684 cases, answered the questionnaire. The mortality of pancreaticoduodenectomy was positively affected by the board certification systems of the Japanese Society of Gastroenterological Surgery, Japanese Society of Hepato-Biliary-Pancreatic Surgery, Japanese Society of Gastroenterology, and Japanese Society of Medical Oncology as well as by institutions that used magnetic resonance imaging of ≥ 3 T for the diagnosis of PC in principle. Conclusions: The measurement of the appropriate QIs is suggested to help improve the mortality in pancreaticoduodenectomy. Masamichi Mizuma and Hiroyuki Yamamoto equally contributed.
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