Careful morphological evaluation forms the basis of the workup of an adrenal cortical neoplasm. However, the adoption of immunohistochemical biomarkers has added tremendous value to enhance diagnostic accuracy. The authors provide a brief review of immunohistochemical biomarkers that have been used in the confirmation of adrenal cortical origin and in the detection of the source of functional adrenal cortical proliferations, as well as diagnostic, predictive, and prognostic biomarkers of adrenal cortical carcinoma. In addition, a brief section on potential novel theranostic biomarkers in the prediction of treatment response to mitotane and other relevant chemotherapeutic agents is also provided. In the era of precision and personalized medical practice, adoption of combined morphology and immunohistochemistry provides a new approach to the diagnostic workup of adrenal cortical neoplasms, reflecting the evolution of clinical responsibility of pathologists.
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