Heterozygous GATA-2 germline mutations are associated with overlapping clinical manifestations termed GATA-2 deficiency, characterized by immunodeficiency and predisposition to myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) and acute myeloid leukemia (AML). However, there is considerable clinical heterogeneity among patients, and the molecular basis for the evolution of immunodeficiency into MDS/AML remains unknown. Thus, we conducted whole-genome sequencing on a patient with a germline GATA-2 heterozygous mutation (c. 988 C > T; p. R330X), who had a history suggestive of immunodeficiency and evolved into MDS/AML. Analysis was conducted with DNA samples from leukocytes for immunodeficiency, bone marrow mononuclear cells for MDS and bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells. Whereas we did not identify a candidate genomic deletion that may contribute to the evolution into MDS, a total of 280 MDS-specific nonsynonymous single nucleotide variants were identified. By narrowing down with the single nucleotide polymorphism database, the functional missense database, and NCBI information, we finally identified three candidate mutations for EZH2, HECW2 and GATA-1, which may contribute to the evolution of the disease.
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