Human parvovirus B19 (B19) infects human erythroid lineage cells. Accumulating evidence also shows that B19 is detectable in nonerythroid lineage cells in vivo, but the mechanism of infection is still not clear. In this study, we explored the mode of B19 infection of human monocytic cell line U937. An in vitro infection study demonstrated B19 binding of U937 and slow replication of B19-DNA with B19-NS1 mRNA transcription. B19-DNA replication in U937 was accompanied by undetectable level of B19-VP1 mRNA transcription, indicating that B19 infection of U937 cells may be abortive. Levels of B19-DNA and B19-NS1 mRNA transcription increased in the presence of anti-B19 IgG antibodies, but this effect decreased in the presence of anti-Fc receptor antibodies, showing antibody-dependent enhancement by B19 infection. Antibody-dependent enhancement also caused the increased production of TNFα in U937. This study is the first to suggest B19 infection of nonerythroid lineage cells with antibody-dependent enhancement.
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