Recently, we have found honeycomb patterns with sub-micron line width that form during the non-equilibrium process of cast film formation. The honeycomb-patterned films were fabricated using four macromolecular compounds (amphiphilic copolymers containing lactose units or carboxyl groups as side-chains and polyion complexes composed of anionic polysaccharides). The specific binding of lactose by lectin confirmed that the lactose moieties contained in the honeycomb films work as biologically active ligands. Bovine serum albumin (BSA) labeled with fluorescein was covalently attached to the honeycomb films using water-soluble carbodiimide (WSC) as an activator. Using fluorescence imaging of the modified film, we could show that the proteins are immobilized on the honeycomb patterns. Adhesion of bovine aorta endothelial cells (ECs) to the honeycomb films indicates that the honeycomb structure works as an adhesive site for the cells.
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