The regeneration of haploid and diploid plants was demonstrated from protoplasts that were isolated from cell suspensions of anther callus in rice. The cell suspension in the AA medium that contained 4 amino acids as the sole nitrogen source was friable, finely dispersed, and readily released a large number of protoplasts. These protoplasts, subsequently cultured in NO3 medium that contained nitrate as the sole nitrogen source, formed compact calli. The compact calli produced green plants with a frequency of 24%. Out of 15 flowering plants, 4 were haploids, the others were diploids which showed a uniform morphology but varied in seed fertility from 95 to 0%.
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